Know about Polyhydraminos and Oligohydraminos in Pregnancy

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Pregnancy for most women is a rewarding experience. However, 15% of pregnant women worldwide develop a potentially life threatening complication requiring medical intervention for survival, according to the 2017report titledManaging complications in pregnancy and childbirth: a guide for midwives and doctors” released by the WHO and the UNICEF.

One of the common types of pregnancy complication is abnormal levels of amniotic fluid. This can lead to severe anomalies like pulmonary hypoplasia, birth defectsand even fetal death.

Amniotic fluid is crucial to the growth and development of the fetus. But at times, there could either be too much or too little of it in the uterus. Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI) and Maximum Vertical Pocket (MPV) are the two ways to measure the level of the fluid.

The best gynecologists in Delhi need to be consulted to handle both conditions of little and excessive amniotic fluid. If you are carrying a child, here is some useful information on this complication.

Polyhydraminos: An Overview

The pathological increase of the amniotic fluid volume is known as polyhydraminos which affects 1-2% of all pregnancies, leading to increase in risks of preterm labor, umbilicalcord prolapseand UTI, according to an article on National Center for Biotechnology Information.

Causes of Polyhydraminos
The major causes are gestational diabetes, fetalmalformationsand multiple pregnancies. Other significant reasons are: incompatible blood group of the mother and child, birth defects reducing the potency of central nervous system of the baby, fetalanemia and viral infections due to rubella and parvovirus B19.

Symptoms of Polyhydraminos

The basic symptoms include troubled breathing, premature membrane rupture, fetal malposition, severe uterine contractions, maternal dyspnea and swelling in the abdominal wall. Polyhydraminos can lead to other health complications like preeclampsia in pregnancy.

Treatment of Polyhydraminos

During 32nd and 34th week, the amniotic fluid increases to 800ml or more; after which the fluid levels must gradually decrease. This is normal and does not have adverse effect like placental abruption or haemorrhage.

Excess fluid can be withdrawn by inserting a needle in the sac. This process is repeated until the levels reach normalcy according to the gestation age. Other methods of treatment include inducing early labor and oral medications to reduce fetal urine production.

Oligohydraminos: An Overview

About 8% of all would-be mothers experience amniotic fluids lower then 5th centile into their pregnancy. It is caused by a number of factors like pre-existing diabetes, high-blood pressure medicines and post term pregnancy. It is also linked with abnormalities with the fetal kidney. Oligohydraminos can slow down the baby’s growth in case it is detected in the third trimester.

Causes of Oligohydraminos

Besides the ones discussed above, placental insufficiency, abnormal fetal kidney development, birth defects, renal agenesis and certain medications can cause oligohydraminos. However, the causes of this medical condition are often unknown and unclear. For example, viral infections can cause both polyhydraminos and oligohydraminos in pregnancy.

Symptoms of Oligohydraminos

If you notice fluid leakage through vagina, minimal weight gain and slow fetal growth, you might be suffering fromoligohydraminos. Make sure to consult the best gynecologist in Delhi to avoid severe complications like miscarriage and still birth.

Treatment of Oligohydraminos

In case the condition is detected at the near end of pregnancy, no medical assistance is required. If not, the treatment procedure will depend on the gestational age. One of them is fluid infusion into the womb through catheter containing the same antibodies and hormones like that of the mother, according to an article on Healthline. Other methods include re-hydration with oral liquids or introducing saline water into the body.

Expecting mothers must enroll for advanced maternity packages in Delhi. They offer world-class fetal medicine expertise to ensure the best facilities for unborn babies. Both polyhydraminos and oligohydraminos often resolve on their own, without interventions. But, the supervision of a qualified gynecologist in Delhi is essential to rule out underlying diseases in pregnant women.